The Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is one of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Agreements. After the Agreement was finally agreed in 1994, there has been an expansion of issues in the TRIPs negotiation. After the Uruguay round, the TRIPs negotiation has developed to cover some additional issues including the expansion of geographical indications other than wines and spirits, harmonisation between Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the TRIPs Agreement, protection of the traditional knowledge (TK), Traditional Cultural Expression (TCE), and biological resources. These new issues mainly represent the interest of developing countries. The development of TRIPS negotiation post Uruguay Round, therefore, indicates the increase of the developing countries’ role in pursuing their interest.
The research aims at elaborating the notion of environmental protectionism in trade practices as exemplified in the case of Indonesia-US timber trade relations. Under the Lacey Act amendment (promulgated in April 2010), entry to US timber market requires environmentally friendly certification making a barrier to Indonesia’s timber and wooden product. The US maintains that the measure is in concordance with its environmental conservation interest and standardization. Indonesia’s timber and wooden producers, on the other hand, argue that the regulation is an instrument justifying new protectionism measures which eventually benefitting its domestic timber and wooden producers. In spite of that, the government of Indonesia has been showing efforts to make its timber and wood products in compliance with can the US standards.
The launch of Doha Round of trade negotiations in 2001 is a significant momentum in the history of international trade. The agenda for equitable development as the focus of negotiations raises both opportunities and challenges, especiallyfor developing countries. This important development must be utilized by developing countries by strengthening two domains at once: first, strengthening policy formulation and implementation in the domestic domain, and second, trade diplomacy
reinforcement to achieve opportunities in every trade scheme agreed in this round of negotiations.
As one of major exporters of crude palm oil (CPO) and its derivative products, Indonesia has ever more faced with challenges in its environmentally-friendly practices of its palm oil industry. Increasing concerns among consumers of CPOrelated products onthe issue has encouraged CPO producing countries (including Indonesia) to apply a technical standard on plantation and production processes of palm oil. Major example of such concerns is that of European one who introduces a Roundtable on the Sustainable of Palm Oil (RSPO). It has laid down a regulation based on the Europe Union Renewable Energy Directive (RED) 2009/28/EC.
This research aims to analyze Indonesia’s comparative advantage to China and Japan. The scope of the research covers the years between 1994 and 2009, which can be divided into several periods: 1994-1997, 1998-2001, 2002-2005, and 2006-2009. The data are gathered from trade statistics, publ ished by United Nations, including International Trade Statistics Yearbook (ITSY) and United Nations Commodity Trade Stat istics Database (UN-COMTRADE). This research employs 3 digits Standard International Trade Classif ication (SITC) Revision 3. The findings demonstrate that between 1994 and 2009, Indonesia’s exports were mainly in products that can be categorized as crude materials, inedible, except fuels. This research also concludes that Indonesia’s comparative advantage to China and Japan is st ill in raw materials and natural resources.