The Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is one of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Agreements. After the Agreement was finally agreed in 1994, there has been an expansion of issues in the TRIPs negotiation. After the Uruguay round, the TRIPs negotiation has developed to cover some additional issues including the expansion of geographical indications other than wines and spirits, harmonisation between Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the TRIPs Agreement, protection of the traditional knowledge (TK), Traditional Cultural Expression (TCE), and biological resources. These new issues mainly represent the interest of developing countries. The development of TRIPS negotiation post Uruguay Round, therefore, indicates the increase of the developing countries’ role in pursuing their interest.
The research aims at elaborating the notion of environmental protectionism in trade practices as exemplified in the case of Indonesia-US timber trade relations. Under the Lacey Act amendment (promulgated in April 2010), entry to US timber market requires environmentally friendly certification making a barrier to Indonesia’s timber and wooden product. The US maintains that the measure is in concordance with its environmental conservation interest and standardization. Indonesia’s timber and wooden producers, on the other hand, argue that the regulation is an instrument justifying new protectionism measures which eventually benefitting its domestic timber and wooden producers. In spite of that, the government of Indonesia has been showing efforts to make its timber and wood products in compliance with can the US standards.
The launch of Doha Round of trade negotiations in 2001 is a significant momentum in the history of international trade. The agenda for equitable development as the focus of negotiations raises both opportunities and challenges, especiallyfor developing countries. This important development must be utilized by developing countries by strengthening two domains at once: first, strengthening policy formulation and implementation in the domestic domain, and second, trade diplomacy
reinforcement to achieve opportunities in every trade scheme agreed in this round of negotiations.
As one of major exporters of crude palm oil (CPO) and its derivative products, Indonesia has ever more faced with challenges in its environmentally-friendly practices of its palm oil industry. Increasing concerns among consumers of CPOrelated products onthe issue has encouraged CPO producing countries (including Indonesia) to apply a technical standard on plantation and production processes of palm oil. Major example of such concerns is that of European one who introduces a Roundtable on the Sustainable of Palm Oil (RSPO). It has laid down a regulation based on the Europe Union Renewable Energy Directive (RED) 2009/28/EC.
This research aims to analyze Indonesia’s comparative advantage to China and Japan. The scope of the research covers the years between 1994 and 2009, which can be divided into several periods: 1994-1997, 1998-2001, 2002-2005, and 2006-2009. The data are gathered from trade statistics, publ ished by United Nations, including International Trade Statistics Yearbook (ITSY) and United Nations Commodity Trade Stat istics Database (UN-COMTRADE). This research employs 3 digits Standard International Trade Classif ication (SITC) Revision 3. The findings demonstrate that between 1994 and 2009, Indonesia’s exports were mainly in products that can be categorized as crude materials, inedible, except fuels. This research also concludes that Indonesia’s comparative advantage to China and Japan is st ill in raw materials and natural resources.
Agricultural commodities especially plantation ones are strategic commodities in international trade. The increase in export trend of Indonesia’s main agricultural commodities show that Indonesia’s agricultural products are able to compete in international market. Commodities which are routinely exported are palm oil, rubber, cocoa, coffee, pepper, and tea. From some of these, commodities such palm oil, rubber, and cocoa are the most primary commodities generating foreign exchange for the country. Indonesian cocoa is exported as cocoa beans, cocoa butter, cocoa paste, cocoa husk and shells. Rubber is exported as natural rubber and processed rubber.
In this issue, the Journal of the World Trade Studies presents five selected articles focusing mainly on developing countries in global trading system. Some of the articles published in this issue were already presented at the International Conference on ‘Enhancing Indonesia’s Competitiveness in Contemporary Trade’ on 3 October 2011. This conference was organized by the Center for World Trade Studies in cooperation with the Indonesian Ministry of Trade, the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. In addition, the authors of the current issue are not only Indonesian researchers but also researchers from other countries. The contribution of international researchers exhibits the merit of networking under the WTO Chairs Programme.
It is a great pleasure in presenting to readers the first issue of 2010 of the Journal of the World Studiespublished by Center for the World Trade Studies Universitas Gadjah Mada (can be cited as J. WTS U. Gadjah Mada). In this issue we publish a collection of essay on the theme of the WTO and the Third World. Those articles arose from a joint program between Center for the World Trade Studies Universitas Gadjah Mada and the World Trade Organization Chairs Program (WCP). In this issue we present five selected papers which are contributed by our senior researchers who come from the Faculty of Agriculture, the Faculty of Business and Economics, the Faculty of Social and Political Science, and a practicing lawyer specialized in international trade cases.